May 31, 2010
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No. 2 of the Second Group of Model Cases Involving the Protection of People's Livelihood Issued by the Supreme People's Court: Yu Jianshui v. the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Shanghai) An'shan Road Sub-branch and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Shanghai) Yangpu Sub-branch (dispute over savings contract)
No.2 of Second Group of Model Cases regarding Guaranteeing People's Livelihood Issued by the Supreme People's Court: Yu Jianshui v. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Co., Ltd. Shanghai Anshan Road Sub-branch and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Co., Ltd. Shanghai Yangpu Sub-branch (case of dispute over deposit contract) 最高人民法院公布保障民生第二批典型案例之二:俞建水与中国工商银行股份有限公司上海市鞍山路支行、中国工商银行股份有限公司上海市杨浦支行储蓄存款合同纠纷案
1. Basic Facts 基本案情
In early May 2008, a person not involved in the case surnamed Xu and the client manager surnamed Chen of Defendant Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) Anshan Road Sub-branch (hereinafter referred to as the “ICBC Anshan Road Sub-branch”) fabricated an one-year time deposit product of the ICBC with the annual sales interest rate of 16%, and set a trap for Plaintiff Yu Jianshui to deposit money in the sub-branch. When going through formalities for opening an account, Chen covertly opened an “e-bank” on behalf of the Plaintiff and got a USBKey, but he only delivered one bank card and one current accounting book of financing account with the seal of Defendant ICBC Anshan Road Sub-branch to the Plaintiff. On the following day, Yu Jianshui separately deposited 200 yuan and 500 yuan to the account in dispute at the cash deposit machine and the bank counter. On May 14, the Plaintiff entered into a Power of Attorney with Chen and Xu and they agreed on that the Plaintiff should deposit 25 million yuan to the Defendant ICBC Yangpu Sub-branch for a term of one year and such deposits may not be withdrawn in advance, be transferred, or be reported for loss. Chen signed the contract in the name of the authorized agent of the Defendant and covertly affixed the business seal of the ICBC Yangpu Sub-branch on the contract by taking advantage of his position. On the same day, the Plaintiff deposited 20.91 million yuan to the aforesaid account and Xu transferred the so-called “high discount” of 4.09 million yuan to the account as promised. On the afternoon of the same day, Xu logged on to the e-bank by using the USBKey he falsely claimed, transferred 25 million yuan to the account of other person, and withdrew it for personal consumption. After the case was exposed, Xu, Chen, and others were sentenced by the court for the crime of swindling. The Plaintiff filed a lawsuit with the People's Court of Yangpu District, Shanghai Municipality on the ground that the Defendant failed to have the certificate of deposit cashed after such certificate of deposit expired, and requested the court to order the two Defendants to cash the deposit principal of 25 million yuan and the interest thereof. 2008年5月上旬,案外人徐某和被告工行鞍山路支行的客户经理陈某虚构该行销售年息高达16%的一年期定期储蓄产品,诱骗原告俞建水前往该行存款。在办理开户手续时,陈某偷偷代原告开通了“网上银行”并领取了U盾,却仅将一张银行卡及一本加盖被告工行鞍山路支行印章的理财金账户活期对账簿交由原告。次日,俞建水在自动存款机和银行柜面分别向系争账户存入200元及500元。同月14日,原告与陈某、徐某签订一份《委托书》,约定由原告存入被告工行杨浦支行2500万元,期限一年,不提前支取,不转移,不挂失。陈某以被告委托代理人的名义在该合同上签字,并利用职务之便,在合同上偷盖了工行杨浦支行的业务章。当日,原告将2091万元存入上述账户,徐某则将承诺的所谓“高额息差”409万元转入该账户。当日下午,徐某即利用冒领的U盾登录网上银行,将2500万元转账支取后供个人挥霍。事发后,徐某、陈某等人因诈骗罪被法院判刑。原告以存单到期被告未兑付为由起诉至上海市杨浦区人民法院,请求法院判令两被告兑付其存款本金2500万元及相应利息。
2. Judgment 裁判结果
After a hearing of second instance, the No. 2 Intermediate People's Court of Shanghai Municipality held that: Compared to ordinary depositors, banks were better equipped for preventing crimes committed by criminals by using the banks. Therefore, banks should develop sound business specifications and strictly observe them, avoid risks as much as possible, guarantee the deposit safety of depositors, and safeguard the lawful rights and interests of depositors; however, where a depositor failed to adopt necessary preventative measures although he or she knew in advance that an unlawful infringement may occur, or the depositor deliberately violated the essential safety rules and regulations of the saving institution, which caused his or her property loss, and there was causality between the fault of the depositor and the property loss, the depositor should assume the corresponding liability within the range of his or her fault. 上海市第二中级人民法院二审认为,相对于普通储户而言,银行更有条件防范犯罪分子利用银行实施的犯罪,故银行应当制定完善的业务规范,并严格遵守规范,尽可能避免风险,确保储户的存款安全,维护储户的合法权益。但是,如储户事先明知可能发生不法侵害却未采取必要的防范措施,或故意违反储蓄机构必要的安全规章制度而导致其财产受损,且该过错与损害结果之间存在因果关系的,则储户应当在其过错范围内承担相应的责任。
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